An 800 foot (250 m) diameter hill that was surrounded but not overtopped by the tsunami had runups of over 160 feet (50 m) where the tsunami directly impacted it, but less than 65 feet (20 m) on the lee side (Figure 5). October 1, 2020 - by Tim Lydon. These factors are likely driving an increase in the frequency of large landslides. Note how the tsunami is strongly influenced by the topography, with large changes in run-up elevations over short distances. To date, most post-tsunami surveys are from earthquake-generated tsunamis and the geomorphic signatures of landslide tsunamis or their potential for preservation are largely uncharacterized. Furthermore, at higher elevations and in arctic and subarctic climates, permafrost is a significant contributor to the strength of some mountains, and thawing, or even warming of still-frozen permafrost, can greatly weaken those mountains. Additionally, some consideration should be given to sediment transport: rip rap boulders could be carried by a tsunami, increasing damage and recovery costs. Part of the debris traversed the width of the fjord and re-emerged onto land, depositing coherent hummocks with preserved source stratigraphy on an alluvial fan and adjacent moraines on the far side of the fjord. A recent string of massive landslides in Alaska and around the world bears the fingerprint of climate change. 2). Journal of Geophysical Research-Earth Surface 123(10): 2443-2463. Initial estimates of the maximum tsunami run up were as high as 150 m using the Alaska IfSAR-derived DEM. Smaller vessels might experience some of the same hazards as can be found in tidal rapids—strong eddy-lines and whirlpools that can capsize and sink boats. Ground Truth Trekking, licensed under CC BY 3.0 . Dieser Tsunami war wahrscheinlich durch den Chicxulub-Impakt vor 66 Millionen Jahren verursacht worden. ... a 2015 landslide at Taan Fjord … The 2015 Taan Fjord tsunami was generated by a 99 million cubic yards (76 million cubic meters) landslide that occurred following retreat of the Tyndall Glacier. Tree trunks that remained standing after the tsunami were scoured by strong sediment-laden currents that sometimes severely abraded the upstream side of trees, leaving them peppered with small rocks (Figure 3). Oktober 2015 kamen 180 Millionen Tonnen Fels plötzlich ins Rutschen. Depending on the geometry, size, and speed of this force, the nature of the resulting tsunami wave can vary dramatically. In the case of the massive landslide that fell into Taan Fjord, Alaska, the answer was no—and yes. 1992. Geomorphology 78: 207–221. At Taan Fjord in 2015, a landslide caused a tsunami that crested at 600 feet. Taan Fiord is about 100 km from the nearest town, Yakutat, AK. The 2015 landslide and tsunami reshaped the landscape at the terminus of Tyndall Glacier. Forscher rekonstruieren Mega-Tsunami, der sich 2015 in Alaska ereignete. “In Taan Fiord (Icy Bay, Alaska), a landslide that began moving slowly decades ago suddenly failed in October 2015. 2018). In Grönland löste ein Erdrutsch an der Westküste im Jahr 2017 eine über 90 Meter hohe Welle aus , die einen Großteil eines nahe gelegenen Fischerdorfes zerstörte und vier Menschen tötete. One rough result has been published (not related to our study) that jointly models the landslide and tsunami (George et al. Tsunami-inducing landslides are rare but have occurred in Alaska and elsewhere. Fortunately, the debris from that event didn't reach the water, avoiding a tsunami. Die Folge war ein Tsunami mit knapp 200 Meter Höhe. in The First Meeting of International Consortium of Landslides Cold Region Landslides Network, Harbin, China 49–54. The location shown here is near the mid-length of Taan Fiord, where the survey team set up their primary base camp. "If it was September or any time in the summer, the wave could have gotten a fishing boat or two," Larsen said. Ground Truth Trekking, licensed under CC BY 3.0. Taan Fjord Landslide and Tsunami. Geowissenschaft: Tsunami im Taan-Fjord. CoastView. Geophysical Research Letters 44: 7276–7284. Ships carried in such currents would be vulnerable to collisions that could rupture the hull, or they might be carried broadside into shoals where they could be rolled over. On October 17th, 2015 a landslide adjacent to the tidewater Tyndall Glacier, located at the head of Taan Fjord in Alaska's Icy Bay, generated a massive tsunami that inundated and modified several large stream deltas within the fjord. Ekström, G. and C. P. Stark. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sedgeo.2017.10.004 However, many similar situations might have had greater impact: A landslide might occur at a busy time of year; a small landslide or tsunami might impact a beach campsite; or a large landslide might occur in one of the other fjord arms of Icy Bay. Presumably what little sediment was available in these areas was transported offshore. The landslide triggered an enormous local tsunami. Miller, D. J. Photo: Ground Truth Trekking (CC BY-NC 3.0) As Glaciers Melt, Will Deadly Landslides Increase? Tsunami impacts near the landslide. Ground Truth Trekking, licensed under CC BY 3.0. 2018). More recently in 2015, a landslide in Taan Fjord sent roughly 10 million cubic yards of material tumbling into the waters of the remote area west of Yakutat, Alaska and caused a tsunami … Worldwide glacial retreat and thinning, it states, exposes unstable slopes and increases the likelihood of major landslides, triggering high-runup tsunamis. Der Tsunami hinterließ dicke, charakteristische Ablagerungen, die sich von denen anderer moderner Tsunamis 16 unterschieden, als er mehrere Schwemmfächer entlang des Taan-Fjords überschwemmte und wieder auftauchte (siehe ergänzende Abbildung). The tsunami moved boulders up to 16 feet (5 m) in diameter where it was largest (Figure 3). In jüngerer Zeit löste ein Erdrutsch im Jahr 2015 im Taan-Fjord in einem abgelegenen Gebiet westlich von Yakutat, Alaska, einen Tsunami aus, der mehr als 200 Meter hoch war. July 15, 2020. The Sea 15: 53–91. A century ago, Icy Bay was filled with glaciers (Russel 1893). Lodge operators and visitors might have been warned of the risk; tsunami modeling likely could have accurately shown the impacts would be potentially severe within the fjord, but would only extend a short way into the main bay. We are able to calculate the volume of the landslide and the volume that entered the fjord. The Taan Fiord tsunami was preceded by a century of rapid glacial retreat (Koppes and Hallet 2006), decades of ground cracking and creep (Meigs et al. Piles of earth and rock following the 2015 Taan Fjord landslide and tsunami. 2009. Even below the inundation line on the protected side of this hill, there were more rooted trees and intact soil than in less-protected areas. 2018). VIDEO: Camp Bay, height A systematic analysis of this sort could inform park development planning and public education efforts that could reduce risk. Alaska parks are prone to events like this. A giant boulder moved by the tsunami that ran down Taan Fiord in 2015. Tyndall Glacier retreated at an increasing pace through the late 20th century until it stabilized in 1991, at approximately the location of the current terminus. George, D. L., R. M. Iverson, and C. M. Cannon. On October 17, 2015, 180 million tons of rock slid into Taan Fiord, an arm of Icy Bay, generating a tsunami that stripped forest from 8 square miles (20 square km) of Wrangell St.-Elias National Park and Preserve and reached as high as 633 feet (193 m) above the … The slide caused tens of meters of shallowing in some areas, while it eroded sections of the pre-landslide shoreline. 180 Millionen Tonnen Gestein donnerten damals in einen Fjord. The 2015 landslide and tsunami in Taan Fiord, Alaska. Coastal Features, Glaciers, Alaska. Having detected the Tyndall Glacier landslide, Stark and Ekstrom located it with a very high resolution satellite image, which Lamont-Doherty have included in their press release : Slope failure at the terminus of Tyndall Glacier on 17 October 2015 sent 180 million tons of rock into Taan Fiord, Alaska. The October 17th, 2015 Taan Fiord landslide and tsunami generated a runup of 193 m, nearly an order of magnitude greater than most previously surveyed tsunamis. In contrast, tsunamis generated by subaerial landslides (as well as ice-calving and meteor impacts) are often much shorter-period, flooding the land more rapidly, and affect a smaller area.
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